文章摘要
喻启桂.肿瘤治疗的新突破:溶瘤病毒治疗[J].安徽医药,2018,22(1):1-7.
肿瘤治疗的新突破:溶瘤病毒治疗
New breakthrough in cancer treatment:oncolytic virus therapy
投稿时间:2017-08-22  
DOI:
中文关键词: 溶瘤病毒  单纯疱疹病毒I型  癌症  临床试验
英文关键词: 
基金项目:
作者单位
喻启桂 美国印第安纳大学医学院微生物与免疫学系,美国 印第安纳波利斯 IN46202 
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中文摘要:
      溶瘤病毒通过感染癌细胞,引起病毒性细胞病变并诱发宿主抗肿瘤免疫反应,从而选择性感染和杀死癌细胞。美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)和欧洲药物管理局(EMA)最近批准了世界上第一个用于治疗恶性黑色素瘤的溶瘤病毒制剂,命名为Imlygic。Imlygic为表达人粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF) 的单纯疱疹病毒I型(HSV-1)活病毒颗粒,经直接注射入肿瘤组织引起肿瘤细胞裂解和机体抗肿瘤免疫双重效应。除了HSV-1外,尚有许多不同类型的病毒已经进入临床试验,评估其生物安全性和抗肿瘤疗效。这些正在临床试验的溶瘤病毒包括腺病毒、痘病毒、麻疹病毒和呼肠孤病毒等。治疗的肿瘤包括卵巢癌、腹膜癌、肝癌、胶质瘤和黑色素瘤等。目前,溶瘤病毒治疗肿瘤的临床试验约有67项,一些临床试验已经取得了有希望的结果,从而进展到第三期临床试验。该文重点讨论目前正在临床试验中用于治疗各类癌症的溶瘤病毒,并讨论这些溶瘤病毒作为一类新的癌症治疗药物的机遇和挑战。
英文摘要:
      Oncolytic viruses are viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells by viral cytopathic effects (CPEs),host immune responses,or both.The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have recently approved Imlygic (a genetically modified live oncolytic herpes simple virus) for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes.Imlygic is the first approved oncolytic virus agent,which is directly injected into the melanoma lesions where the oncolytic virus replicates inside cancer cells and causes the cells to rupture and die.Oncolytic viruses have been developed from many different types of viruses including adenovirus,vaccinia virus,herpes simplex virus 1,measles virus,and reovirus.In addition,advances in molecular engineering have allowed for manipulation of the viral genome to both make them safer by deleting viral genes involved in pathogenesis and by insertion of anti-tumor genes to enhance antitumor activity.Many oncolytic viruses have now been tested in clinical trials with varying degrees of success against a number of different cancer types including ovarian cancer,peritoneal carcinomatosis,primary hepatocellular carcinoma,glioblastoma,gliosarcoma,and melanoma.The field of oncolytic virus therapy has expanded rapidly over the past decade.Currently,there are more than 67 clinical trials of oncolytic viruses and some clinical trials have yielded promising results,thereby progressing to late stage clinical development.This review focuses on oncolytic viruses that are currently in clinical trials for treatment of various types of cancer.The challenges and perspectives for further research in the field of oncolytic virus therapy are also discussed.
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